Object: The author reports his experience using the Chhaabra Slit n Spring shunt system SH202 in pediatric patients in Ethiopia using connectors at the entry point of the shunt into the ventricle to anchor the system without anchoring suture. Placing an anchoring suture is often difficult in very young pediatric patients because of a lack of available tissue. This alternative was therefore developed.
Presented at the 21st Meeting of the Surgical Society of Ethiopia at the African Union, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia on February 3, 2017.
Methods: The consecutive results of patients was retrospectively studied from 10/7/2014 to 9/21/2016 in 76 patients. Follow-up ranged from 26 months to 3 months through December 2016. Most the patients were 6 months of age or less (49) while (16) were between 6 to 12 months and (11) were greater than 1 year of age.
The ventricular catheter was connected to a straight connector which was connected to silicone tube which bent at the entry into the brain. The silicon tube proximal end was connected via connector the shunt valve. All connections were secured with 2-0 silk. Otherwise the procedure is as described by B.C. Warf in J Neurosurg (Pediatrics 4) 102:358–362, 2005. Complications were 7% shunt revision , 4% minor wound revision, and 5% shunt infection.
Conclusion:This alternative method of anchoring the shunt without suture compares favorably with other previous reports of the Chaabra shunt system. There were no intraventricular migrations or migrations out of the ventricle as has been reported in the literature. When revision was necessary it was slightly more complicated than with the ventricle single connector setup but still could be accomplished without too much effort. Longer follow-up is necessary to more fully evaluate this alternative.
For the past 18 months we have used a novel technique for emergency percutaneous external ventricular drainage (EPEVD) in young infants. This is taught to pediatric residents and general surgery residents under the direction of the neurosurgical unit at Ayder Comprehensive Specialized Hospital, Mekelle University College of Health Sciences. Acute obstructive or communicating hydrocephalus presenting in young infants with patent anterior fontanels is a common occurrence in teaching hospitals of developing countries. This life saving procedure can allow a rapid decompression of intracranial pressure and the immediate safe acquisition of cerebrospinal fluid analysis for diagnosis.
The following case is an example of the procedure. A 6 month old child was seen by the parents to have progressive head growth and lack of development over several months. Examination showed a tense fontanel, macrocephaly, and developmental delay. A cranial ultrasound showed severe hydrocephalus with viscous intraventricular content consistent with infection.
We suspected tuberculosis of the ventricles and urgent decompression and diagnosis was necessary.
With the mother holding the child so no sedation or anesthesia was necessary, the scalp was prepped with betadiene. Then an 18 gauge angiocatheter was placed perpendicular to the mid-pupillary line in the anterior fontanel.
The needle stylet is removed and the angiocatheter seated to scalp. Several gauze are used to wrap the angiocathether which will then hold it firm when a protective dome is placed.
The protective dome made out of the top of common water bottle that has been cleaned with alcohol is slipped over the drainage tube. By securing the catheter to prevent dislodgement or lateral movement the protective dome prevent secondary brain injury and displacement of the catheter.
The drainage tube and dome are then secured with tape to the skull. In this case because of the high viscosity of the intraventricular fluid only a small amount of elevation of the drainage tube over the head was used.
This is a useful temporary measure which does not require an operating room or advanced skill of a neurosurgeon to perform. It does have the disadvantage of not being tunneled but is not intended for long term use. The use of easily available material in the setting of a developing country and teaching it to pediatricians and general surgeons in a country setting where few neurosurgeons are present will allow access of emergency treatment for more infants.